More Korean words I wish existed in English

This is a follow-up to a popular post I wrote over SIX (gasp?!) years ago. My Korean vocabulary (much as I complain how lacking it is) has increased over the years, which means, yep, more Korean words I wish existed in English.

To be fair, I’ve come to dislike articles that say some word from another language is so unique and untranslatable, just because English doesn’t have an exact equivalent word. A good translation isn’t a one-to-one mapping of words; it tries to capture the meaning, voice, tone, and context of the original work.

So: this is a list of Korean words that could very well be expressed in English, but maybe don’t have an exact equivalent. All of these are commonly used words that frequently pop into my head when I’m having a conversation in English, making me think on more than one occasion, Oh man, there’s a perfect word in Korean for this.

대충 (부사): roughly; cursorily

I use this word a lot. It’s used to indicate something is done approximately, roughly, “kind of,” or “sort of”–basically, the opposite of being thorough about something. For example: 대충 알다 (to kind of know), 대충 훑어보다 (to skim through), 대충 파악하다 (to get a sense of). 

I also enjoy using this word to mean the opposite of 열심히 or 제대로. For example: 대충 공부하다 (to study casually), 대충대충 살다 (to skate through life / not take life too seriously), 대충 하다 (to dabble in, to wing something, to rush through something — depends on the context).

I use this word a lot when people ask me how I started studying Korean. Since I started out listening to Korean language podcasts just for fun, I usually say: “처음엔 한국어 팟개스트 대충 듣고 있었는데, 들으면 들을 수록 많이 배우게 돼서 제대로 공부하기로 했어요.”

함부로 (부사): thoughtlessly; without care

Whenever I think of this word, I think of the scene from Sungkyunkwan Scandal where Jaeshin tells Yoonhee: “함부로 고개 숙이지마라.”

함부로 is used to describe an action that’s done without care, thought, or consideration, or done haphazardly and indiscreetly without thinking of the consequences. For example: 돈을 함부로 쓰다 (to throw away your money on something), 말을 함부로 하다 (to run your mouth/speak thoughtlessly), 함부로 행동하다 (to act without thinking). 함부로 대하다 can mean to act rudely toward someone, mistreat or disrespect them, walk all over them, and/or treat them as if their feelings don’t matter. 

 Sentences with 함부로 in them are fun to translate because to sound natural, you have to have a really good grasp of context and nuance in both Korean and English. Just look up the phrase 돈을 함부로 쓰다 in the dictionary–you’ll see  there are at least four different idiomatic entries listed, each with different nuances.

Related words & phrases: 함부로 대하다, 함부로 쓰다, 함부로 들어가다, 함부로 말하다

설레다 (동사): to be nervous in an excited way

설레다 is usually translated as ‘fluttering’ or ‘palpitating.’ You’ll see it often as 가슴이 설레다 to mean your heart’s a-flutter or your heart skipped a beat — usually because you’re with someone that you’re attracted to.

I like using 설레다 more to mean a nervous kind of excitement, like when you’re about to experience something you’ve been looking forward to for the first time. You’re excited, but there’s a little bit of tentativeness, a little bit of anxiety associated with the feeling.

For example, when I recently met an online friend in-person for the first time, I exclaimed, “우와 진짜 설렌다 설레!”

Related words & phrases: 가슴이 설레다, 마음이 설레다, 사람을 설레게 하다

수고했다 (표현): good job; thank you 

This is by far my favorite Korean phrase. 수고 means ‘effort’ or ‘trouble,’ and the phrase 수고했다/어요/습니다 is usually said to acknowledge someone’s hard work. For example, you might say 수고했습니다 to your team after pulling off a big event or making an important client presentation. I think the most natural English equivalents are phrase like “thanks for all of your hard work” or “nice job / good job everyone” or sometimes even just “thank you.”

But I love that the word 수고 is in this expression; there’s something nice about explicitly calling out the effort it takes to accomplish something, not just the accomplishment itself. 수고했다, 수고 많았다, and equivalently 고생했다/많았다, feels like an acknowledgement of the work you put in to get something done, not just the end result.

재수 없다 (표현): annoying, rude, unpleasant

This phrase cracks me up. 재수 means ‘luck’ or ‘fortune,’ so this phrase literally translates to ‘to be unlucky.’ But it’s used more colloquially to describe a situation or person that’s really getting on your nerves — similar insults include 싸가지 없다, 얄밉다, 무례하다, 뻔뻔하다, 건방지다, 등등. For example, if someone cuts in front of you rudely while driving, you could exclaim, “와, 재수 없어!”

You could use this phrase more literally to mean unlucky, as in 재수 없는 날 or 재수없게도 — in this case, it’s more like a bad situation arose that you had no control over. But used to describe a person, 재수 없다 has an accusatory nuance; e.g., a 재수 없는 놈 isn’t someone who happens to just be unlucky, he’s someone who chooses to be rude and annoying.

멋 (명사): charm; beauty; the quality of being chic, inspiring, and/or impressive

This word can sum up pretty much all of a person’s positive and delightful traits. 멋지다 or 멋있다 can describe someone’s demeanor (suave, cool, classy), their appearance (sophisticated, handsome, fashionable), and their actions or intellect (amazing, awesome, admirable, magnificent).

It makes me sad to see 멋지다 fan-translated as “cool” or “awesome” over and over again. But the awesome (멋진?) thing about this word is that it has so many shades of meaning depending on context. You could use 멋지다 to describe a famous composer or a civil rights activist for their accomplishments. Here, “cool” in English doesn’t quite have the right nuance; something like “masterful” or “inspirational” would work better.

Related words & phrases: 멋지다, 멋있다, 멋을 부리다, 멋쟁이, 멋을 내다, 멋대가리 없다, 멋대로

인연 (명사) : connection, relationship 

This word describes some kind of relationship between two people. There are lots of different ways to use this word to describe the quality of your relationship with someone (e.g. 좋은 인연, 나쁜 인연, 영원한 인연) and/or related actions (e.g. 인연을 맺다, 인연을 찾다, 인연을 끊다).

I really like using 인연 by itself to mean “fate” or “coincidence.” For example, I met one of my closest friends online by chance so I could say 우리는 인연이다.

Related words & phrases: 인연을 맺다, 인연의 시작, 인연이 끊어지다, 인연이 멀다, 악연

부담스럽다 (형용사): to be burdensome; to be uneasy or uncomfortable

부담스럽다 is one of those words that I really, really wish English had an exact equivalent for. It’s often literally translated as “burdensome.” I see 부담스럽다 used more to describe situations where someone feels as though they are socially obliged to act or behave a certain way as a result of someone else’s actions towards them. Essentially, a feeling of social pressure.

For example, if someone you don’t know very well is being overly friendly and familiar towards you, you might feel like you have reciprocate even though you don’t want to. That feeling is 부담스럽다.

Related words & phrases: 부담 갖지 말고

Photo by insung yoon on Unsplash

Tips for improving Korean essay writing

After more than a year of attending advanced Korean classes and regularly writing and reviewing 500-800 character essays with my teacher, I’ve accumulated a few useful tips for improving long-form writing that I thought I’d share here.

I’ll preface this by saying few people write well in any language, even among native speakers. I’m a writer and storyteller in both my professional and personal life and I know just how hard it is to build compelling rhetoric using effective, engaging language on any topic. So, following these “quick tips” won’t make you a good writer in Korean — that will take years of practice reading and writing, just as it would in English. But it may help you get started on the road to sounding more natural.

Caveat: This is only one language learner’s experience (mine) and one language instructor (my teacher)’s advice, so take with a grain of salt.

Continue reading “Tips for improving Korean essay writing”

Throwback to my K-pop listening days

Confession time. I tend to get defensive when people ask me if I’m learning Korean because of K-pop. That’s because 1) K-pop was never a motivation for me to learn the language; it was a side-effect, and the better I got at Korean, the less I started to like idol music anyway. And 2) the stereotype of a typical K-pop fan these days is less than flattering.

That said, yes, I too had a rich, happy K-pop phase. I used to be a huge DB5K fan and then Big Bang, and had my phases with SHINee, Infinite, B.A.P., and B2ST (which UM WHAT apparently a lot has happened with them since I last checked).

Anyway I found my interest in K-pop rekindled when a friend of mine told me about YGE’s official rhythm game BeatEVO YG. The app has been absolute shit since its recent Android update so I can’t in good conscience recommend it, but I got addicted anyway and am now super nostalgic for 2006-2010-era Big Bang. All of a sudden, I’m back to listening to 하루 하루, 거짓말, 마자막 인사, 나만 바라봐 on repeat.

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The lyrics to this song are so horrible and yet….

I think now, listening to those songs, a lot of the nostalgia I have has to do with how much those songs influenced my learning Korean. I really don’t think I give K-pop enough credit for the role it played in my early Korean learning days, but it was a critical source from which I absorbed tons of new grammar and vocabulary.

A few days ago, I was digging through some old notes from that “exponential” phase of my Korean learning days and found a three-ring binder full of K-pop lyrics and language notes.

I used to print out the lyrics to a song I liked and then painstakingly look up every single noun, verb, particle, connector, and sentence ending I didn’t know using either Talk To Me In Korean, Clare You & Eunsu Cho’s Online Intermediate College Korean, and/or Korean Wiki Project. I’d break up the lyrics into stanzas and under each stanza, type out all of my language notes, and then write up a rough translation of the lyrics in English. And then I’d compare it existing translations out there.

And then, I’d memorize.

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My language notes from Big Bang’s ‘Haru Haru.’

 

It wasn’t a perfect or even efficient method, and there were definitely pitfalls I had to watch out for. I risked learning grammar incorrectly, or learning weird slang words/expressions and skewing my developing vocabulary to words related to love and heartbreak. English translations that existed online were mostly terrible, so using those to help me grasp word usage and nuance was probably a bad idea. The potential to learn something wrong and then struggle to unlearn it later on was very, very high.

And yet.

This way of learning Korean through K-pop somehow made Korean feel like a more tangible and comprehensible language to me than reading about it in a textbook. Over the years, through reading a wide range of material and, yes, suffering through textbooks, I’ve managed to correct some of those things I learned incorrectly while gaining a deeper understanding of others I had oversimplified. But, for sure, if I hadn’t started out teaching myself like this, I don’t think I’d be at the level I am now.

I might be reluctant about admitting it these days, but I look back on my K-pop fandom days with a lot of fondness, both for how much I enjoyed the music itself and for how much it built my foundation for Korean. Those were good times.


Okay, so, a funny, unexpected side effect of playing so much BeatEVO YG — I’m really into Sechskies now???? Yep. The real reason I don’t listen to K-pop any more is actually just because my taste in idol music is stuck in the 90s-00s. 😂

2018 language goals

In all honesty, I never liked setting personal goals because why bother when there’s good chance that I’ll just fail and make myself feel bad?

There are a few different things wrong with that attitude, yes, but one major reason for it is that my goals were always either 1) grossly unrealistic or 2) not concrete enough.

Re: #1, I used to live by that terribly tired quote, “Shoot for the Moon. Even if you miss, you’ll land among the stars.” Why not pile up more on your plate than you can handle or make your to-do list infinitely long, when even just accomplishing some of those things is an achievement, right? Objectively, that’s true. But a glass half empty-type person like me dismisses all the things they have accomplished and are consumed by what they haven’t, maybe even so much so that it paralyzes them from moving any further. So. The trick is to aim lower, maybe even embarrassingly low, so you do manage to check off everything on your list, even if it’s just for your own ego and self-esteem. If you feel good about accomplishing stuff, chances are you’ll want to accomplish even more stuff.

As for #2, if there’s one thing being in analytics taught me, it’s that it’s impossible to measure success when you’re not metrics-driven. Setting a goal like “be better at X” isn’t helpful because “being better” isn’t something you can really measure when it comes time to evaluate yourself. Setting a number to your goal helps to make it more concrete, more measurable. Instead of “run more,” something like “run 10 miles a week” is better.

So, with that in mind, my realistic and measurable language goals for 2018 are:

1) Publish 2 blog posts a month

Maybe not every month, but at least 9 out of 12 months this year (hence my rush to get this post out before the end of January). Heck, if I can publish 1-3 blog posts a week for my job, I can do it for the thing I love.

2) Study 50 new words a week

I was proud of my TOPIK II score this time around but my biggest challenge was, hands-down, vocabulary. So. As much as I hate memorizing, I will be getting very intimate with my Quizlet decks this year. This isn’t my favorite way of studying vocabulary; I much prefer learning words through context but I concede that sometimes the best and fastest way to learning new words is memorization coupled with lots and lots of practice sentences.

3) Write 1 TOPIK essay a week

Through my classes, I’ve accumulated a lot of helpful notes on how to improve my writing score; now it’s just a matter of practicing so that I can write well in the allotted time. I plan on publishing and notes to this blog as well.

4) Improve my score in each TOPIK section

I’m not setting any hard goals on how much I want each section to improve by, but if the overall number increases, I’ll be thrilled.

5) Read at least two Korean news articles a week

Ahem. My weakness is reading Korean celebrity interviews, web comics, and historical novels; needless to say, my scope of relevant Korean vocabulary is limited. I want to improve my vocabulary rapidly but I don’t have the time or interest in immersing myself in Korean economics or politics to learn through context. But reading or even skimming a couple articles a week should be doable.

I really admire people who can maintain elaborate study logs, where they carve out exactly how many hours they’re going to put into reading, listening, writing, etc. Back when I first started learning Korean, I absorbed things so enthusiastically that every spare moment felt as though I was doing something language-related. Studying wasn’t even a thing I thought about separately setting aside time for.

I think I keep saying this over and over again here, but I’ve been feeling ‘lost’ with Korean for a long while now. I plateaued in terms of how much I could “absorb” effortlessly and didn’t know how to impart more discipline in my studying. Hopefully goal-setting like this will help me add more structure to my studies and help me further improve my Korean fluency.

Twenty-eight

It’s been a few years now since I stopped being excited about my birthday.

Every year, the weight of my disappointment in myself grows heavier; all of my numerous, unrealized goals come rushing painfully back at me. Responsibilities grow, conflicts become more convoluted, and meanwhile it gets harder and harder to stay true to my own sense of self.

Maybe that’s just growing up?

But maybe it’s a sign of personal growth that this year, I tried hard not to be moody and taciturn around my birthday. I know that the people who send their greetings or think to get me gifts do it because they care. So, I try to be kind to myself on my birthday and grateful for the love others have shown me.

I made a rare trip to Koreatown in Santa Clara to visit a bookstore that I haven’t been to in years, since my language partner moved away. If you’re in the South Bay, 서울 문고 종교 서관 has a limited quantity of new releases, all-time bestsellers, and Korean books on religion. But the real gem is the used books collection. I spent an unreasonable amount of time combing through the shelves until deciding on a couple birthday presents for myself.

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Yes, that book on the left is a history book for elementary school kids about 사서 (四書), or the Four Books of Confucianism. Since Joseon-era scholarly study was almost entirely rooted in Confucian teachings, I learned some relevant Korean words on the topic while reading 성균관 유생들의 나날. I figured I might as well pick up this book to learn a bit more.

books-1

I haven’t really looked through the book, but I can say that while the writing is quite simple, and I’m surprised by just how much detail is packed in a book for elementary school children. There’s a separate section for each of the four books (논어, 맹자, 대학, 중용) and places where they break down Hanja.

The second book is a collection of essays by bestselling author 공지영. I don’t know if  I can say I’m a fan of her work (too damn depressing), but I do admire her writing. I’ve been doing a lot of writing in Korean and I’m trying to improve not just my sentence structure and vocabulary, but overall composition; I figured I should get in the habit of reading good, creative nonfiction as a first step.

books-2

(This book’s table of contents is so weirdly cute.)

After books, I stopped for coffee and deliciousness at Cocohodo. Cocohodo is famous for pretty much one thing: 호두과자, or Korean walnut pastries.

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호두과자 is a walnut-shaped pastry, with a bready outer shell made of dough containing pounded walnuts, and filled inside with red bean paste and walnut chunks. In its entirety, it tastes like I’m eating a soft, sweetened walnut… which was confusing for my brain because a walnut-shaped pastry, made of walnut dough, filled with walnut chunks, which tastes like a walnut but that isn’t a walnut….! Heh. Anyway, it was my first time trying it and it was quite incredible with black coffee.

This post is late. I’ve been 28 for a few days now. It’s still hard to shake the feeling that it’s not just this post, or this blog, but that I’m late at everything I set out to do. But I know that’s not true. I know I’ve accomplished a lot in the past year, both related to Korean and not. I know I’ve achieved things I never even had a goal post for in the first place. So I’ll continue to tell myself, at least until the birthday-ish feeling wears off, that there’s really no reason to be so melancholy.

먹칠하다

It’s so strange to realize that 성균관 유생들의 나날 was one of the first Korean novels I ever bought, at a time when it was still wayyyy too difficult for me to comprehend.

Six years later (!!), I can finally read entire chapters without having to look up words and still understand what’s going on. Plus, I know an astounding number of words related to Confucian scholarship and education. (Oh my god I found the blog post I wrote when I first bought the books.)

Anyway, that’s how I came across the word 먹칠하다.

Continue reading “먹칠하다”

First ever Korean class

So after many months of not really studying Korean (despite what it looks like on my blog, I rarely pick up a textbook and study. Almost everything I write about comes from random one-off things I read in Korean.) I decided what I really needed was external motivation to take my skill to the next level.

SO! I signed up for Advanced Korean classes at San Jose Language Center. I really feel like I struck gold here because it’s incredibly close to where I live and it’s a language school designed for adults – which means all classes are after working hours.

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There are only two other students in the class and they’re both of Korean heritage. At first, the instructor said she was worried when she saw me (clearly not of Korean heritage) on her roster but we conversed for a bit, and then afterward, she said I might actually be too advanced for the class. Welp?

Either way, I was really nervous about taking an actual class for Korean that’s also completely taught in Korean. In my 7-ish years of learning the language, this was the first time I’d ever taken a class in a formal setting. I also hadn’t actually had a conversation in spoken Korean since my first trip to Seoul about 2.5 years ago.

I had my first class last Friday and… it was really, really great. Yes, I’m fairly familiar with all of the grammar we’re supposed to cover over the next seven weeks, but I’m getting so much more value than that out of this class.

  • Speaking practice: This is a huge one. Since there are only two other students and the instructor, we get to converse a lot amongst ourselves. I’m finally getting some very much needed speaking practice.
  • Proverbs: Yeah, I’m pretty terrible at learning proverbs. I’ll look them up and then immediately forget them. I think learning proverbs and idioms in a classroom – especially in one this small – will be really effective because of all the practice we do with each other.
  • Nuance: In the first class, we covered three different ways to express reason or cause: -느라고, -는 바람에, -고 해서. Though I’m familiar with all three, the instructor provided a lot of insight into the nuances of each and the different types of situations each one would be appropriate for.
  • New friends: Yay new IRL language friends!
  • Expert knowledge: I’m so used to researching/looking up all the questions I have about Korean grammar or vocabulary on my own that it’s incredible to be able to just ask the teacher when I don’t know something.
  • TOPIK prep: Because I hate reviewing TOPIK papers on my own. And (as with any kind of test prep) there are tricks that can help you master certain types of questions that are just not covered in textbooks.
  • Accountability: This is really the main reason why I wanted to take a class – so I’d be forced to study, do homework, review… or else be forever shamed in front of my teacher and peers, heh. Already since my first class, I’ve spent more time reviewing grammar/vocab in the past several days than I have in months. And by the time the course ends, I’m hoping that I will have developed a daily cadence for studying Korean that I will continue to follow.

I’m a huge proponent of self-studying languages and I always will be. If you have the drive and you can find the right resources, I think you can go far studying on your own. But I’ve come to realize (not just regarding language learning, but also other things), if you feel stuck in some part of your life, figuring out a way to shake things up really helps. I realized that I just wasn’t motivating myself to study Korean even though I really want to get better in the language (yay for the 욕심 coming back); getting myself into a classroom setting was the right way to kick my brain in gear.